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Glossary - T

Displaying glossary terms beginning with the letter T: 51 - 100 of 104 in total
tonometry
A glaucoma screening test that measures pressure inside the eye.
tooth decay
Infectious disease that attacks the teeth. Also called dental caries.
topical
Pertaining to an external surface of the body, such as the skin, mouth, vagina, or anus; often used to describe the administration of medicine that is applied directly to such a surface.
toxic
Pertaining to something that is poisonous.
toxic nodular goiter
An enlarged thyroid gland with nodules that produce excess thyroid hormone. This type of goiter is to blame for hyperthyroidism in many people over 60.
Related health topics: End-Stage Renal Disease
toxin
A poison, usually one produced by a living organism.
toxoid vaccines
Vaccines that protect against harmful bacterial toxins. These vaccines contain toxins that have been detoxified and rendered inactive.
trabecular bone
Bone tissue arranged in a meshwork of thin plates or beams that is commonly found at the center of long bones and that composes a large part of the hip and vertebrae. Also called cancellous bone or spongy bone.
trabecular meshwork
A system of fine, mesh-like tissue in the anterior chamber of the eye through which aqueous humor drains; located in the angle where the clear cornea, white sclera, and colored iris join.
trabeculectomy
A standard surgical procedure for glaucoma that creates a new channel for fluid drainage from the anterior chamber to the sub-conjunctival space.
trabeculoplasty
A laser procedure that burns small holes on the eye's trabecular meshwork to ease the flow of aqueous humor from the eye.
trace mineral
A mineral that is required only in tiny amounts in the diet to maintain health; the principal trace minerals are chromium, copper, selenium, sulfur, and zinc.
tracheostomy
A hole created through the front of the neck and into the windpipe (trachea). It provides an air passage when the usual route for breathing is obstructed, such as after a traumatic injury to the face or neck, or when long-term use of a breathing machine (ventilator) is needed.
tracheotomy
The procedure used to create a tracheostomy.
traction
The process of putting a bone or other body part under a pulling tension by applying weights and pulleys to help healing.
trans fats
A type of fat made during hydrogenation of liquid vegetable oil. Trans fats are found in many solid margarines, commercially prepared baked goods, and fried foods in many restaurants. Trans fats increase harmful low-density lipoprotein, decrease protective high-density lipoprotein, and promote blood clotting and inflammation.
trans fatty acid (trans fat)
A type of unsaturated fatty acid produced by the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils. In developed countries, most trans fats in the diet are artificially made. Trans fats are found in solid margarines, commercial baked foods, and many fried foods. Trans fats raise the level of harmful low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the bloodstream and depress the level of beneficial high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
Related health topics: Stroke Overview
transcranial Doppler scanning
An ultrasound technique that makes images of the major arteries at the base of the brain.
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
The use of low-voltage electrical current (through electrodes placed on the skin) to provide pain-suppressing stimulation
transdermal
Through the skin.
transferrin saturation
A measure of iron circulating in the blood.
transfusion
The process of taking blood from a healthy person and infusing it into a person whose own blood has been depleted during surgery or an accident, or is for some reason not functioning correctly. Transfusions of whole blood or of specific blood cells (such as red cells, white cells, or platelets) are possible.
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
A brain attack that resolves on its own within 24 hours; sometimes called a mini-stroke. Often an early warning sign of an impending stroke.
transient pain
Minor, fleeting pain.
transmural infarction
Heart attack that destroys the entire thickness of a section of heart muscle.
transplantation
The process of removing an organ or other donated body part from one person and implanting it in another person.
transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)
A procedure that uses sound waves to create an image of the prostate gland as a means of detecting cancer. Sound waves are directed to the prostate from a probe inserted in the rectum.
transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP)
An operation used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate gland) in which incisions are made in prostate tissue to relieve pressure on the urethra and ease urinary difficulties.
transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT)
A heat therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate gland) that uses microwaves to destroy prostate tissue that obstructs urine flow.
transurethral needle ablation (TUNA)
A procedure that uses radio waves to heat and destroy cells in the prostate gland that are obstructing the urethra.
transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)
An operation used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate gland) in which excess prostate tissue is surgically removed.
transverse processes
The ringlike projection on each side of a vertebra to which muscles and ligaments are attached and, in the chest area, to which the ribs are connected.
traumatic grief
A prolonged, intense reaction to bereavement that affects one in 10 people who lose a loved one. Key signs are inability to accept the death; frequent nightmares and intrusive, upsetting memories; detachment from others; constant yearning for the deceased; and excessive loneliness. Also known as complicated grief or chronic grief.
tremor
A rhythmic, quivering movement of muscles that can be caused by diseases such as Parkinson disease, side effects of medication, or old age.
tricuspid valve
A three-flap valve that sits between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
tricyclic antidepressant
A class of medications that relieve depression by interfering with the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine by neurons in the brain and spinal cord. At low doses, they are effective as pain medicines.
trigeminal neuralgia
Pain from a disorder of the trigeminal nerve, the chief sensory nerve of the face. Also called tic douloureux.
trigger
Anything that can set off symptoms.
trigger point
A tender area that, when stimulated, also elicits pain elsewhere in the body.
triglyceride
The primary type of fat in the body and in the diet, formed from three fatty-acid molecules and one glycerol molecule. This fat can raise the risk for heart disease when elevated.
triiodothyronine (T3)
One of two types of major thyroid hormone manufactured by the thyroid gland. It contains three iodine atoms.
triptans
A class of medications that work by constricting blood vessels in the head and perhaps by inhibiting inflammation.
trochlea
A groove in front of the femur where the patella moves as the knee bends and straightens.
troponins
Proteins found in heart muscle that leak into the circulation during a heart attack or other heart injury.
trust
A legal entity in which assets are gathered during a person's lifetime. That person may control distributions directly or through trustees elected to carry out wishes at a time or point specified. After death, remaining assets are distributed to beneficiaries.
trypsin
An enzyme secreted by the pancreas that helps digest proteins.
tumor
Any type of swelling or enlargement of tissues; most often used to describe an abnormal growth of tissue, which can be cancerous or noncancerous.
tunica albuginea
The dense fibrous membrane surrounding each corpus cavernosum and the corpus spongiosum in the penis.
tympanic membrane
The eardrum.
tympanometry
A test of the eardrum's motion and pressure in the middle ear. Also known as impedance testing.